Allergies: A Comprehensive Guideline on Everything You Need To Know

Allergies grow while your immune system responds to an exotic substance –  like pollen, mold, dust, animal dander, and even certain foods; these substances are called allergens that don’t cause a reaction in most people.

Our immune system’s duty is to keep us healthy by preventing harmful pathogens. It does this work by producing antibodies in our bodies. When you have allergies or go to the contact of allergens, your immune system takes these allergens as harmful substances even though it is not. Due to the contact of allergens, your immune responses may inflame your skin, sinuses, and digestive system which can cause inflammation, sneezing, or a inviter of other symptoms. 

Normally, your immune system can adjust to your environment. For example, when your body faces something like pollen or pet dander, it realizes it’s harmless but for the people who have pollen or dander allergies, the immune system takes it as an outside invader that can threaten the body, so it attacks it. However, allergies are common, but certain treatments can assist you to remove your symptoms.

Symptoms of Allergies

Basically, allergies exist in many different forms in the body such as food allergy, skin allergy, dust allergy, insect setting allergy, pet allergy, eye allergy, drug allergies, allergic rhinitis, latex allergy, mold allergy, sinus allergy, and cockroach allergy. Depending on the forms of allergies, symptoms of allergies vary with the range of mild to severe. In some cases, allergies can bring a life-threatening response which is known as anaphylaxis.

For Food allergies

A food allergy can cause the following symptoms:

  • Tingling in the mouth
  • Nausea
  • Fatigue
  • Hives
  • Swelling of the lips, tongue, face, or throat
  • Anaphylaxis

You might realize you have a food allergy and it can take a while. If you realize a serious reaction after taking a meal and you’re not sure why it is causing it, go to your doctor immediately. He/she can say the exact cause of your reaction and what you should do, you may avoid those foods that you have allergies. 

For seasonal allergies 

Seasonal allergies can cause the following symptoms:

  • Congestion
  • Runny, stuffy nose
  • Sneezing
  • Watery, red, or swollen eyes
  • Itching of eyes

Most of the time, you might be able to control these symptoms at home using over- the- counter treatments. You should go to your doctor when your symptoms become unmanageable.

For insect sting allergy

For insect sting allergies, the symptoms are as follows:

  • A massive area of swelling (edema) at the sting site
  • Redness and pain where it attacked you
  • Itching or hives all parts of of the body
  • Shortness of breath
  • Cough, chest tightness
  • Anaphylaxis

After realizing these symptoms, see a doctor immediately. They can give proper advice and provide the right treatments.

For Drug Allergy

Because of taking some medicine, you may face allergies symptoms. The symptoms are the following:

  • Rash
  • Itchy skin
  • Hives
  • Facial swelling
  • Wheezing
  • Anaphylaxis  

After taking the drug, it can take a while to show these symptoms if those drugs have a side effect of allergy. Immediately, go to your doctor only they can advise you what you should do, either they will change the drugs or give you a new medicine that will reduce your symptoms.


Anaphylaxis is a life-threatening medical emergency that can occur you to go into shock. Several types of allergies such as allergies to food and insect stings cause a severe reaction known as anaphylaxis. Sign and symptoms of anaphylaxis are as follows:

  • Breathing difficulties
  • Loss of consciousness
  • Reducing blood pressure
  • Skin rash
  • Lightheadedness
  • Nausea and vomiting
  • A rapid and weak pulse

Allergens on skin

skin allergy symptoms

Skin allergies may be prefixes or symptoms of allergy. In other words, they may be the direct result of disclosure to an allergen. For example, by eating food you might be allergic and cause various symptoms such as tingling in your mouth and throat and rash in your body. The skin allergies are different types:

  • Rashes: Areas of skin are red, pestered, or swollen and can be painful.
  • Eczema: Someplace of skin turn inflamed, and can bleed. 
  • Contact dermatitis: After contacting with an allergen your somewhere of skin can red, and itchy.
  • Sore throat: Throat or pharynx is pestered or inflamed.
  • Swollen eyes: Eyes can be watery or itchy and it looks puffy.
  • Itching: Pestering and inflammation in the skin.
  • Burning: Skin inflammation operates to the trouble and stinging sense on the skin.

Causes of allergies

Like pollen, dust, animal dander; some foods also cause allergies.
Foods like wheat, nuts, egg can cause allergy.

Researchers aren’t accurately assured why the immune system occurs an allergic reaction when a usually offensive foreign element comes in the body. After that, your immune system grows antibodies that stay alert for certain allergens. When you’re disclosed to the allergen once again, these antibodies can liberate some immune systems chemicals, including histamine which causes allergy symptoms. Additionally, allergies have a genetic component that means parents can exceed them to their children. However, definite allergies aren’t exceeded. The common types of allergens are the following:

  • Airborne allergens: These cover pollen, animal dander, mites, dust, mold, and cockroaches.
  • Drugs: such as penicillin and sulfa drugs.
  • Foods: These include eggs, milk, wheat, nuts, shellfish, and soy.
  • Insect stings: Wasps, bees, and mosquitoes.
  • Mold: Airborne spores from the mold.
  • Plants: Weeds, pollens from grass, and resin from plants, for example, poison ivy and poison oak are very ordinary allergens.
  • Other allergens: Latex, mostly found in latex gloves, and metals such as nickel are also ordinary allergens.

Risk Factors

There are some risk factors that can develop your allergic condition, they are:

  • Containing a family history of asthma or allergies, for example, hay fever, hives, or eczema.
  • To become a Child.
  • Have asthma or other allergic conditions.


If you have an allergy, the risk of particular medical problems can be increased. The risks are as follows:

  • Anaphylaxis: Anaphylaxis is a life-threatening medical emergency, also called severe allergies. The most ordinary triggers of anaphylaxis are food, medications and insect stings or bite. 
  • Asthma: Having allergies increases your risk to have asthma- an immune system response that affects the airways and breathing. 
  • Sinusitis and infections of the ears or lungs: If you have allergies like hay fever or asthma, the risk of attack by the sinusitis and infections of the ears or lungs increases.


We know that prevention is better than cure. So, you have to follow the prevention methods to stay free from allergies and go for a healthy lifestyle. Here are 10 healthy lifestyle tips for adults. Though preventing ways depends on what types of allergies you have. The general prevention ways are the following: 

  • Avoid known triggers: Preventing allergic reaction you must avoid known triggers, even if you’re medicating your allergies symptoms. If you are allergic to dust, you have to stay away from dust, keep your home clean, leave your shoes outside of the house and wear a mask when you go outside. Additionally, you can install an air filter in your home to keep your home free from dust. Besides, if you are allergic to pollen, keep away yourself from windows and close your door when pollen is high.
  • Use a dairy: If you’re allergic to foods, keep a diary and note here which foods show the symptoms of allergies. This may help you as well as your doctor to identify which foods are the culprit. 
  • Wear a medical alert bracelet:  If you have a severe allergic reaction, wear a medical alert bracelet so that other people know you have a serious allergy and you are unable to communicate.

To know more about prevention of allergies and allergic asthma, we would like to request you to follow the WHO guidelines.


There are several ways to diagnose allergies. Firstly, your doctor will ask you in details about the symptoms and signs and perform a physical test. For example, If you have a food allergy your doctor will ask about your food’s diary that you eat. Additionally, they will ask about any substances whether you have contact with them or not.

Secondly, your doctor can also instruct both of the physical exams -skin test and blood test that will confirm whether you have an allergic reaction or not.

Skin test: A skin test is an ordinary type of allergy test conducted by an      allergist. During this test, a nurse or doctor will prick your skin to collect a small amount of proteins containing potential allergens. After completing the test, if you have allergies to certain substances, your skin will turn red and inflamed.

Blood test: The second method of physical test is a blood test. Your blood will be examined for  the presence of allergy-causing antibodies called immunoglobulin E (IgE). If they are concerned about the possibility of a severe allergic reaction, they will use a blood test to assure a diagnosis.

Treatment of Allergies

To avoid allergies reaction you must follow the prevention methods, if that isn’t possible or despite of maintaining the ways if you attack by the allergens following the available treatments:

antihistamine drug can help you to control your allergies symptoms.


Allergy treatment always includes medications such as antihistamine,  decongestants, nasal spray, and eye drops. The treatment can be prescription or over the counter. Treatments depend on your allergy symptoms and medical history. Antihistamines assist to reduce sneezing and runny nose, many nasal steroid sprays can be purchased over the year for minimizing nasal congestion. Similarly, eye drops help to control symptoms like itchy eyes. There are several types of eye drops you can consider after  taking suggestion from your doctor: 

  • Antihistamine eye drops 
  • Mast cell stabilizers
  • Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory eye drops
  • Combination eye drops where can add two of these medicines.

Like eye drops, there are several options for nasal spray, including:

  • Nasal saline rinses
  • Corticosteroids
  • Antihistamine nasal spray

 In addition, if you want to clear stuffy nose with allergies, you may try decongestant.

If you feel uneasy and remain that these medications are ineffective for reducing your allergy reaction, you are highly requested to go to your doctor who is an allergy specialist, only he or she can provide you the right prescription.


When your severe allergies are not absolutely mitigated by other treatment, your doctor might recommend immunotherapy. Immunotherapy can be completed by shots or sublingual immunotherapy. As a result, it is also called allergy shots. Immunotherapy is a long-term but reliable method where you will usually take shots  almost 3-5 years. However, this process is very effective to medicate allergy symptoms.

Additionally, sublingual immunotherapy is licensed by the FDA ( Food & Drug Administration of the USA), in this process, the tablet is installed under the tongue ( sublingual) until it melts.

Emergency epinephrine

If you are a patient of severe allergy, you might need to take an emergency epinephrine shot daily. An epinephrine shot( Auvi-Q, EpiPen, etc) can help you to relieve your symptoms until you receive emergency treatment.

Our verdict, most of the allergies are possible to manage by prevention ways, medication and changing lifestyle. Therefore, you should maintain the prevention methods, keep away from allergens and take medicine regularly. Besides, take suggestions from your doctor or allergist to minimize any major complications and spend life more enjoyable.

Related Article: Seasonal Allergies: Step-By-Step Guideline For This Year.

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